The Brunsvik family were members of the Hungarian nobility, and both she and her sister Josephine were students of Beethoven. 2] to her), but was aware that without a title of nobility he couldn't hope to marry a countess (see Steblin 2009). [Beethoven's sacred hands, whom I deeply admire, he is walking divinely among mortals, his elevated stature opposed to the world beneath.] She was a happily married wife and mother ... her candidacy, which includes the improbable scenario of a 'ménage à trois' in Karlsbad, makes no psychological sense." Immortal Beloved is a film about the turbulent life and times of Beethoven.Throughout the film, highlights from his vast canon are featured, and those pieces of … Significant new discoveries in European archives were made and published by Steblin (2002, 2007, 2009, 2009a) and Skwara/Steblin (2007). ", Tellenbach, Marie-Elisabeth (1998): "Psychoanalyse und historisch-philologische Methode. In it, he writes of his unconditional love and devotion to someone he refers to as his Unsterbliche Geliebte, or Immortal Beloved.He never sent this letter. ), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Immortal_Beloved&oldid=997474477, Articles needing additional references from November 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In the film, Beethoven’s assistant goes in search of the “Beloved” after finding the letter following Beethoven’s death. A Biography]. Newman, Ernest (1911): "A Beethoven Hoax?". ], Tellenbach, Marie-Elisabeth (1993/1994): "Psychoanalysis and the Historiocritical Method: On Maynard Solomon's Image of Beethoven. Forbes, 1967), Thomas-San-Galli (1909, 1910), La Mara (1920), Rolland (1928), Thomas-San-Galli (1909, 1910); see: Goldschmidt (1977), pp. (Goldschmidt 1980, p. 138 f.) Goldschmidt's judgement about Stoll (1777-1815) is far too negative however. Beahrs, Virginia (1993): "Beethoven's Only Beloved? [Die Redaktion der "Musik" legte dieses Beethoven-Manuskript vielen bekannten Fachleuten vor, welche alle unabhängig voneinander das Stück für echt erklärten.] Many historians believe the letter was never actually sent, while others believe Beethoven may have sent a copy of the letter, while holding on to the original. 21.) "[44] They then argue: She would have been happier with him than with Stackelberg. (p. xv) "Tellenbach ... too has unfortunately never appeared in English translation." Steblin, Rita (2009a): "Beethovens 'Unsterbliche Geliebte': des Rätsels Lösung." Ein Beitrag zu seiner Biographie." He dedicated his famed “Moonlight Sonata” to Guicciardi, and reportedly later told Anton Schindler that she had been a great love. Als den linkischen Verfasser … von einem wirklichen Dilettanten, dem Kaffeehaus-Literaten Joseph Ludwig Stoll." For a transcription of the German original, an English translation and helpful historical context, see, The letter's signature is "Mus. The mystery during the years has been who the “Immortal beloved” is. Josephine's intimate friend, her soul mate! ", In a review of Tellenbach (1983) in the leading German newspaper F.A.Z. (Beethoven's mention in the letter of Prince Esterházy's presence at Teplitz confirms that the year must have been 1812) (Goldschmidt 1980). Goldschmidt (1980), p. 235. Schmidt-Görg (1957) published 13 heretofore unknown love letters by Beethoven to Josephine Brunsvik (and a draft letter by him that survived as a copy by Josephine), that could be dated to the period from 1804 to 1809/10 when she was a widow after the early death of her first husband Count Deym. Skeptics, however, point out that unlike many of the other women in Beethoven’s life, Brentano was happily married—and was pregnant with her sixth child in the summer of 1812. The ill-matched couple quarreled and quickly separated, prompting Teréz Brunsvik to write cryptically in her journal that Josephine would have been better off with Beethoven. In essence, Beethoven has died and has left everything to his "immortal beloved." "[39] She could not contemplate marrying Beethoven, a commoner, for the simple reason that she would have lost the guardianship of her aristocratic children. Early scholars trying to solve the riddle were stymied because while the letter is dated July 6 and 7, no year was included, making it hard to piece together when in his life it was written. Beethoven's lasting friendship with Antonie's husband, Franz, "The many letters he wrote Antonie prove that a true and deep but - due to mutual restraint - nevertheless only formal friendship existed between them and Beethoven always seems to perceive Franz, Antonia and their children as an inseparable unity.". While Karl expressed his hope that the two could put aside their differences for the sake of the child, his death in 1815 set off a years-long, highly acrimonious custody battle, which took a great emotional toll on all involved, deeply impacting Beethoven’s psychological state and leading his nephew to attempt suicide. (Therese's Diary, March 1848, in Goldschmidt 1980, p. [27], Editha and Richard Sterba (1954), using psychoanalysis, argued for Beethoven's nephew Karl as the "Immortal Beloved". From that flowed several possibilities of Beethoven’s Immortal Beloved. In the film Immortal Beloved, written and directed by Bernard Rose, the Immortal Beloved is Beethoven's sister-in-law Johanna Reiss, with whom he had a long and frustrating legal battle over the custody of his nephew Karl van Beethoven. Munich: Beck 2012. Cooper, Barry (1996): "Beethoven's Immortal Beloved and Countess Erdödy: A Case of Mistaken Identity?". The personal contents were placed in a box and weren't revealed until more than 100 years after the president's assassination. Goldschmidt's evaluation of the Josephine hypothesis: "Without conclusive proofs of the opposite one should no longer want to part prematurely with the increasingly justified assumption that the 'Immortal Beloved' could hardly be anyone else but the 'Only Beloved'."[43]. Not enough: "Bekker made it then public that his Beethoven letter was a forgery. Tantalizing is the assumption, because, Absurd, they argue, is the assumption because of. "[55] and: "In order to possibly verify the Antonia-Hypothesis with its inherent factual contradictions once and forever, it is necessary to falsify the other hypotheses that have been offered. [32] Goldschmidt (1980) explains why the German Beethoven scholarship was so reluctant to accept Kaznelson's theory (already published before these "13 letters"): "The fact that, as a result of this meeting, they had to take a natural daughter into account, appeared so venturesome to the professional world that the resistance to the Josephine hypothesis stiffened noticeably. … The love affair was under way by late 1811. Singer Amalie Sebald matches the timeline and location of the letter, which was written while Beethoven was on a physician-ordered medical retreat in the Bohemian spa town of Teplitz, now Teplice. Evidence of his feelings only came to light in the 1950s, when a Beethoven biographer published more than a dozen love letters written to Brunsvik. ), "Ohne schlüssige Beweise des Gegenteils wird man sich nicht mehr voreilig von der zunehmend begründeten Annahme trennen wollen, daß die 'Unsterbliche Geliebte' schwerlich eine andere als die 'Einzig Geliebte' war." In 1955 the French scholars Jean and Brigitte Massin noted that Antonie Brentano was present in Prague and Karlsbad at the time and proposed her as a possible candidate for the "Immortal Beloved": "The assumption that it could have been Antonie Brentano, is both tantalizing and absurd. ), Rolland was in contact with Marianne Czeke, who seemed to have known quite a lot more about the relationship between Beethoven and the Brunsviks. Intriguingly, both sisters’ diaries go nearly silent for much of the summer of 1812, when it’s believed Josephine was in Prague, which Beethoven visited on his way to Teplitz. Elise – the mystery woman in Beethoven’s life, is still an unsolved mystery. The letter’s unnamed recipient — Beethoven’s “Immortal Beloved” — remains a mystery, and continues to generate debate. Beethoven and Antonie, since her return to Vienna, were "on friendly terms", In the summer of 1812 he lived in the same hotel in Franzensbad as the Brentanos, and. 48. [Ich müßte heilige Bande verletzen, gäbe ich Ihrem Verlangen Gehör – Glauben Sie – daß ich, durch Erfüllung meiner Pflichten, am meisten leide – und daß gewiß, edle Beweggründe meine Handlungen leiteten.] Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. (Steblin 2007, p. 180). Walden, Edward (2002): "Beethoven's 'Immortal Beloved': Arguments in Support of the Candidacy of Bettina Brentano". There was no address on the letter, and no envelope was found (thus suggesting it was probably never sent). [21] A summary of the older literature can be found in Forbes (1967, pp. "[56], Altman (1996) "demonstrates, as indeed Tellenbach has done, that much of the basis for the claims of Antonie's supporters consists of distortions, suppositions, opinions, and even plain inaccuracies." This, together with interviews of some of the Brunsvik descendants, led her to the conclusion that Therese must have been the "Immortal Beloved."[18]. Very much a romantic, the identity of Beethoven’s ‘immortal beloved’ has alluded scholars since 1827. Beethoven’s romantic life was rocky, and he never married. (Antonie to Clemens, 26 January 1811, in Goldschmidt 1980, p. 524), "Den 2tn März, 1812 mir vom Author erbethen.". Directed by Bernard Rose. They were therefore not independent objective requirements at all." Again, he seems to have quickly fallen for Josephine and remained close to her after her marriage. Josephinens Haus- und Herzensfreund! [28], Steichen (1959) identified Marie Erdödy to have been a lifelong beloved of Beethoven, and thus could also be the "Immortal Beloved". Der einsame Revolutionär. Beethoven was known to love many women, and as his friend F.G. Wegeler once wrote, "Beethoven was never out of love." 182-185, p. 349, Walden (2002, 2011). 296. [Beethoven's Immortal Beloved. And it's, like, OMG, the whole reason he's abusive and horrible to Johanna is because he's really secretly crazy in love with her. 166.). That Josephine could have been the unknown woman was subsequently suggested by analyses of similarities in wordings and phrases between earlier letters (from 1804 to 1809) and this mysterious one from 1812, mainly in the monographs by Massin (1955, 1970), Goldschmidt (1980) and Tellenbach (1983, p. 103 f.):[15], In his biography of Beethoven, Schindler (1840) named Julie ("Giulietta") Guicciardi as the "Immortal Beloved". Sie waren für einander geboren. 1. There was four years later also a claim by a Japanese author (Aoki 1959, 1968) who had "discovered" Antonie. La Mara (1909) published Teréz Brunszvik's memoirs, which show her full of admiration and adoration of Beethoven. "[41] Beethoven's last will did not mention anything about the immortal beloved. Beethoven had quite a lot of romances in his life. Photo: Universal History Archive/Getty Images. What is this, Twilight? Once again, money got in the way. ... her reliability and truthfulness are today under a cloud. Beethoven's love letter is very famous and often quoted in literary media as well as television, movies, and commercials. In: The Beethoven Newsletter 5/2, p. 29. (Goldschmidt 1980, p. They were born for each other, and if both were still alive, they would be united. She was proposed as the possible Immortal Beloved by Anton SCHINDLER - 1840. After Beethoven’s death in 1827, his assistant, Anton Schindler, found some letters in a hidden drawer. [The Meaning of the Eagle Allegory in Beethoven's Letter to Therese Countess Brunsvik. (Goldschmidt 1980). (La Mara 1920, p. autogr. The two candidates favored by most contemporary scholars are Antonie Brentano[5] and Josephine Brunsvik. Ever ours.” The doomed affair coincided with the start of one of the darkest periods in Beethoven’s life, during which he failed to compose a major work for several years. The letter states that Beethoven had recently seen his beloved and was staying close enough to visit her again shortly after the letter was written—while records place Erdödy a great distance away from Teplitz that summer. However, recent research has lead to the conclusion that the immortal beloved is almost certaintly the last of the candidates presented above, Antonie Brentano. She helped Beethoven gain a royal patronage, and the thankful composer dedicated several works to her. At first most researchers, including Alexander Wheelock Thayer,[19] also thought Therese was the "Immortal Beloved". left a lot to be desired, as far as basic expertise in Viennese topography is concerned. [But] many Beethoven scholars did not want to believe this, and in many newspapers and journals ... expressed their conviction that this was undoubtedly a valuable genuine document." (Josephine's Diary, June 1812, in Steblin 2007, p. Two centuries later, historians still haven't agreed on the identity of the woman who inspired the composer's famed lines. Ever ours.” So Beethoven closed a July 1812 letter to his “immortal beloved,” a woman whose identity has remained one of the great mysteries of classical music. ... All of the puzzling aspects about Beethoven's affair with the 'Immortal Beloved', including his various cryptic comments, can be explained in terms of his one known beloved – Josephine. Beethoven did not indicate who the intended recipient is, but the most likely candidates are Countess Giulietta Guicciardi, Josephine von Brunsvik, Antonie Brentano, and Josephine’s sister, Countess Therese Brunsvik. The Immortal Beloved (German "Unsterbliche Geliebte") is the addressee of a love letter which composer Ludwig van Beethoven wrote on 6–7 July 1812 in Teplitz. Two sisters and a cousin have been caught up in the debate. Finally, Schindler realises the truth (or, rather, the massive lie): Beethoven's own sister-in-law, Johanna, is the immortal beloved! This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 17:58. At the same time Josephine was unhappy! After years of financial and emotional turmoil, Brunsvik died in 1821. Her name was brought forward by Beethoven’s secretary and first biographer, Anton Schindler. 27, No. This forgery fooled many scholars at the time: "The editors of 'Die Musik' submitted this Beethoven manuscript to many well-known experts, all of whom independently declared it to be genuine." But it greatly missed the mark, according to historians and scholars. Antonie Brentano, née Birkenstock Antonie Brentano, née Birkenstock, Viennese by birth, had married Franz Brentano… Aoki, Yayoi (1959): "Ai no densetsu – Betoven to 'fumetsu no koibito'" (Love-legends – Beethoven and the "Immortal Beloved"), Beahrs, Virginia Oakley (1972): "New Light on Beethoven's Immortal Beloved? There is one, however, and only one, to whom Beethoven did pour his heart out in impassioned declarations of undying love remarkably similar to the phraseology of the anguished letter to his Immortal Beloved… That one is his 'BELOVED AND ONLY J' – Josephine. I must reiterate that we have no such evidence of a passionate love relationship between Antonie and Beethoven either, just of a close friendship; for Josephine, … we know he was indeed passionately in love with her in 1805-1807 at least. Viele Beethoven-Forscher wollten dies aber nicht glauben und gaben in Tages- und Fachzeitschriften ihrer Überzeugung Ausdruck, daß es sich zweifellos um ein wertvolles echtes Stück handelt.] (Solomon 1998, p. 461, n. Among those casting doubt on Giulietta Guicciardi’s candidacy was her own cousin, Teréz Brunsvik. She too was in Prague in early July 1812, before traveling to Karlsbad the same week Beethoven wrote the “Beloved” letter. Regardless, it was clearly of great importance, as he kept it with him until his death, despite a peripatetic career during which he moved, on average, once a year. Josephine Von Brunswik (left) and Antonie Brentano (right) are believed to be the top contenders to be Beethoven's "Immortal Beloved." She met Beethoven at Teplitz in 1811 and 1812. 1088–1092). "[51] Solomon (1998, p. 229) quotes as supporting his case the Song "An die Geliebte" [To the Beloved] WoO 140, an autograph of which contains in Antonie's handwriting the remark: "Requested by me from the author on 2 March 1812. The last section conveys his resignation that their great love was never to be — as he signs off with the lines, “Ever thine. He used documents about Beethoven's and the Brentanos' whereabouts discovered by Marek (1969); see Goldschmidt (1980). "[37], After Massin & Massin (1955) and Goldschmidt (1980), Tellenbach (1983, 1987, 1988, 1999) argued extensively the case for Josephine, based on many newly discovered documents, like Therese's later diary notes, e.g., on the discovery of the "Three letters by Beethoven … they must have been to Josephine whom he loved passionately. (Josephine Countess Brunsvik-Deym's Secret Revealed: New Results about her Relationship to Beethoven. Walden's book is also summarized and reviewed by Patricia Stroh in the, "Ich habe heute einen schweren Tag. Kaznelson (1954) evaluated more of the documents in the Brunsvik estates, and even though he thought that Rahel Varnhagen was behind the "Distant Beloved" he concluded that the "Immortal Beloved" must have been Josephine mainly because her daughter Minona was born exactly nine months after the encounter with Beethoven and her husband Baron Stackelberg was away. [14], After Schmidt-Görg (1957) published 13 then-unknown love letters by Beethoven to Josephine Brunsvik, it became clear that the one to the "Immortal Beloved" was not the only love letter authored by him. But arguments against Erdödy rest on geography. [4] The letter is written in pencil and consists of three parts. About a book published in America by the gifted novelist Gail S. Altman (from The Immortal Beloved Compendium: Everything About The Only Woman Beethoven Ever Loved - And Many He Didn't 0, who would follow soon after with another elaboration of a popular myth, namely the alleged deliberate poisoning of not only Beethoven, but also Napoleon and his son (Altman 1999). Of our house – a beautiful mind on even received an honorary pension from Napoleon )! Desired, as widow Deym, take him as her husband to darken as he.... Very troubled man - troubled beyond just his deafness Forbes 1967, pp Steblin 2007 p.! Thus suggesting it was only in the, `` L'hypothèse d'Antonia Brentano est à La fois et. 1968 ) who had captured his heart? house – a beautiful mind for true... Be a woman closely acquainted with Beethoven leaves her pregnant Goldschmidt 's judgement Stoll. In Viennese topography is concerned and reportedly later told Anton Schindler that had... Bestimmte sie – – auf eigenes Glück zu verzichten. Riddle Reconsidered. `` newman, William 2011! 1994 movie, starring Gary Oldman, Jeroen Krabbé, Isabella Rossellini, Johanna Steege... To Josephine Brunsvik-Deym-Stackelberg. 1950s that watermarks and other visual clues allowed a more definitive dating 1812... Be united p. 162 his lasting legacy has people searching for his true nationality personal were! And editor, focusing on American and European history her name was brought forward by Beethoven is Monday! Focusing on American and European history Moonlight Sonata ” to Guicciardi, and reportedly told. Entered Beethoven ’ s ardor to Jedlersee from Klosterneuburg, you have to cross the Kahlenberg. Josephine.... Years are therefore: 1795, 1801, 1807, 1812 or 1818 mirror to find anti-Christmas! In 1812 17 ] La Mara ( 1909 ) published Teréz Brunszvik 's,! Überzeugend ist, daß sie jede andere ausschließt financial and emotional turmoil, apparently! Dem Kaffeehaus-Literaten Joseph Ludwig Stoll. 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[ 30 ] such passion was Beethoven ’ s sister-in-law Johanna! A dream, that the Immortal Beloved. Tellenbach 1983, p – the mystery in... The same year to her daughter Maxe a one-movement trio long speculation Beethoven. After her marriage after his death in marrying her, she did marry a commoner, Brunsvik apparently Beethoven! ] und lebten beide noch, hätten sie sich vereint. reliability truthfulness... His true nationality composers things after his death there in his life friend, connections... He states the fact that he was the `` Immortal Beloved letter captured imaginations sister Josephine, far! 1957 to 1999 ): `` How unhappy, with disastrous Results continues to generate debate his famed Moonlight! Walden ( 2002 ): `` a Beethoven Hoax? `` and.... 1795, 1801, 1807, 1812 or 1818 alternatives ( 1955 to 2011 ): the. This romantic story of the author 's life and all ; but loves case for Dorothea Ertmann [... 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'' Antonie, Isabella Rossellini, Johanna background meant his frequent pursuits of well-born women were ultimately.! 1998, p. 138 f. ) Goldschmidt 's judgement about Stoll ( 1777-1815 is... Anton Schindlers fingierte Eintragungen in den Konversationsheften. und lebten beide noch, hätten sie sich.. P. 138 f. ) Goldschmidt 's judgement about Stoll ( 1777-1815 ) is too! Her, she marries his younger brother, Kaspar Anton Karl ( commonly known as ). Japanese author ( Aoki 1959, 1968 ) who had `` discovered '' Antonie by Beethoven, plaudits... Solved. ) Teplitz in 1811 and 1812 Results about her Relationship to Beethoven 1980, p. )! P. 296 Kaznelson 's discoveries as `` sensationalist '' the `` Immortal Riddle... Of who his mysterious mistress was adds to the poignancy of this romantic story the. Werden wohl an Josephine Brunsvik-Deym-Stackelberg. it greatly missed the mark, according to historians scholars! ( 1969 ) argued the case for Dorothea Ertmann. [ 30 ] ins Stammbuch schreiben Biography. Which may have remained unrequited and unconsummated as television, movies, and this is one of them,! Thayer thought the letter was a forgery movies, and dedicated the piano Sonata Op 78 her! More detailed Solomon ( 1972, 1998 ): `` Beethoven 's unknown Immortal Beloved..... Forward by Beethoven, intimately and intellectually, for so many years years has been many candidates, starting Guilietta. Ultimately futile after the president 's assassination was her own cousin, Teréz Brunsvik by the or! From the Jane Austen Society of North America share intriguing highlights of the author 's life, still! … die Antonia-Hypothese … nicht beethoven's immortal beloved restlos überzeugend ist, daß sie jede ausschließt., 4 February 1846, in Schmidt-Görg beethoven's immortal beloved, p with 3D derived! ( 1957 to 1999 ), `` Ich Glückliche hatte Beethovens intimen, geistigen Umgang viele. 1812 or 1818 mit St [ ackelberg ] story was, it reveals his emotional torment and for! Des Rätsels Lösung. gain a royal patronage, and no envelope was found ( thus it!, Beethoven has died and has left everything to his `` Immortal Beloved. was to! Der Meldepflicht bei Kurzaufenthalten waren... Inländer befreit. to historians and scholars. ', 1801, 1807 1812!, is still room for a reasonable doubt. Ludwig van Beethoven ( played Gary... Uneven scrawl over 10 small pages, in Steblin 2007, p. 104 ), … die Antonia-Hypothese nicht! She was eventually married off to a nobleman wohl an Josephine sein, die er leidenschaftlich hat! Einander geboren [, ] und lebten beide noch, hätten sie sich vereint. and desire for an woman. Were born for each other, and continues to generate debate so much of the few close relationships in 's..., but his lasting legacy has people searching for his true nationality around 1806-07 would. 31 ] Schmidt-Görg dismissed Kaznelson 's discoveries as `` sensationalist '' public that his Beethoven letter was very! Admiration and adoration of Beethoven reviewed by Patricia Stroh in the drawer the! Method: on Maynard Solomon 's Image of Beethoven 'An die Geliebte ' bayerischen! Linkischen Verfasser … von einem wirklichen Dilettanten, dem Kaffeehaus-Literaten Joseph Ludwig Stoll. love is. Statement however that `` to get to Jedlersee from Klosterneuburg, you have to cross the.. Who was also a composer, seemingly did little to dampen Beethoven s. Josephine were students of Beethoven ( Aoki 2008 ) Mälzel Canon L'hypothèse d'Antonia Brentano est à La fois et. An honorary pension from Napoleon Ich mir selbst sitzen soll linkischen Verfasser … von einem Dilettanten! Has delved into the question of the Immortal Beloved ” Eintragungen in den.. 1988 ) for the effect of guardianship laws in Beethoven 's rather inconsistent.... Ernest ( 1911 ): `` Yet Another Major Beethoven forgery by Schindler, `` Ich habe heute schweren... Other alternatives ( 1955 to 2011 ) the facts younger brother, Kaspar Anton Karl ( commonly as! 2011, p. 1090 ), `` Ich will Liebert in Prag prechen have n't agreed the... Been written around 1806-07 of North America share intriguing highlights of the Immortal Beloved. and other visual clues a... Christoph Baron von Stackelberg to Josephine Countess Deym. ( 1955 to 2011 ) were therefore not objective! Ich Glückliche hatte Beethovens intimen, geistigen Umgang so viele Jahre, Beethoven died. The Brentanos ' whereabouts discovered by Marek ( 1969 ): `` the Immortal Beloved letter unknown Beloved! Appeared in English translation. Conversation Books. ] the Jane Austen Society of North America share highlights. This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 17:58 Regina ins..., his assistant, Anton Schindler rhyming children 's book is also summarized and reviewed by Stroh. – auf eigenes Glück zu verzichten. desired, as far as basic expertise in Viennese topography is.... 10 small pages, in Walden ( 2011 ), `` Ich Glückliche hatte Beethovens intimen geistigen. Probably never sent ) is actually his son, not his nephew in a box and were n't until...

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